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淮安哪里可以做无痛人流淮安市治疗直肠炎哪家医院最好的Yael: I was walking my cocker spaniel this morning, and we ran into two other dogs---a great dane almost as tall as I am, and a tiny Chihuahua! I cant believe they are all the same species! 今天早上我在遛的时候碰到了两只其他的——一只是跟我差不多高的大丹犬,还有一只小吉娃娃。简直不能相信他们属于同一物种!Don: You know, scientists are making great strides in understanding the genes that allow such a wide range of shapes, sizes and personalities in different dog breeds. 你知道的,科学家们在探索基因方面已经取得了长足进展,在研究这些不同形状,不同大小,不同性格特点的不同的种类的基因。Did you know domestic dogs were bred from wolves about 15,000 years ago? 你知道国内的是由一万五千年前的狼繁衍而来的吗?Y: Thats pretty recent in evolutionary terms, isnt it? 从进化的角度来讲,那就是近些年的事儿,不是吗?D: Very! Humans have sped up the diversification of dogs by selecting for particular physical or behavioral traits such as size, coat type, trainability, and hunting or herding ability. 太对了。人类通过选择特定的生理和行为特征,如大小、外观、是否可训练性和狩猎型或放牧的能力,已经加快了种的多样化。But dogs still show greater variety than any other domesticated animal, and for a long time this variance has largely been unexplained. 但是相比其他家养动物而言,显示出更明显的多样性,并且在很长的一段时间内,人们无法解释这种多样性。A group of genetics researchers collaborated with dog breeders and veterinarians to study the DNA from 148 different dog breeds. 一个基因研究小组与的饲养者和兽医合作研究了来自148个不同品种的DNA。With such a large sample of genes from very different kinds of dogs, they were able to identify regions in the dog DNA that are important in regulating some key traits that differ between breeds. 在来自不同的的DNA大样本的研究下,他们鉴定出DNA中的区域特征在决定的某些区别与其他的关键特征方面有着至关重要的作用。Four regions were found that may regulate life span, a breed characteristic that usually decreases with increasing body size. 有四个区域可以调节寿命,而且品种的特性会随着体型的变大而逐渐消失。Regions associated with some behavioral stereotypes like herding, pointing and boldness were also identified. 而且也确认了那些和固有品性相关的区域,像是放牧,勾缝以及大胆尝试。Y: What can they do with this information? 他们会拿这些信息做什么?D: The study could have far-reaching benefits for dogs and their owners. 这项研究对于和他们的主人都是有深远影响的。With further research, dog owners and vets could use this information to customize the care, diet and medicines to the particular needs of their breed, and to identify and perhaps prevent breed-specific diseases. 进一步研究会得出,主人和兽医可以凭此信息对有特定需求的定制保健,饮食和药物,并识别同时也可能会防治特种的疾病。201308/253152淮安治疗梅毒费用多少 Science and technology科学技术Mass extinctions大灭绝Small but deadly陨石很小不过危害却很致命The biggest extinction in history was probably caused by a space rock that changed the climate历史上规模最大的一次物种灭绝,也许是由于陨石坠落导致的气候变化而造成AS EVERY schoolchild knows, the dinosaurs were wiped out in an instant, when a rock from outer space hit what is now southern Mexico.就像每个小学生知道的那样,当一块天外陨石坠落到现今的墨西哥南部地区之后,恐龙就那在一瞬间遭受了灭顶之灾。That happened 66m years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period.这一切就发生在6600万年前的白垩纪末期。Well-informed schoolchildren also know that this mass extinction was neither unique nor the biggest.一些学的小学生还知道这次物种大灭绝既不是历史上唯一的一次,也不是历史上最大的一次。The geological record speaks of four others since animal life became complex at the beginning of the Cambrian period 541m years ago.地质学档案记录了5亿4100万年前寒武纪物种多样化以来的另外四次物种大灭绝。What neither these clever schoolchildren nor anyone else knows, however, is whether these extinctions had similar causes.有些历史不论是那些聪明的小学生还是别的人都还不知道,比如,导致这些灭绝的原因是否相似?But evidence is accumulating that the biggest extinction of all, 252.3m years back, at the end of the Permian period, was indeed also triggered by an impact.不过有据不断地明发生在2亿5230万年前二叠纪时期的那次大灭绝也是因为陨石坠落而造成的。Nevertheless, though the trigger was the same, the details are significantly different, according to of the University of Western Australia.然而,按照西澳大利亚大学的埃里克·托瓦尔教授的说法,虽然两次大灭绝引发的原因是一致的,但是其中细节却大不相同。When the dinosaurs vanished they were accompanied by more than 70% of the other animal species on Earth.当时和恐龙一起灭绝的还有地球上超过70%的物种。At the end of the Permian, the extinction figure was more than 80%.在二叠纪末期,那场大灭绝带走了超过80%的物种。And just as the Cretaceous slate-clearing permitted the rise of a hitherto obscure group called the mammals,就如同白垩纪大灭绝成就了一个迄今为止都未被研究透彻的物种—哺乳类动物的崛起,so the Permian clearance permitted the rise of the reptiles,二叠纪大灭绝也成就了爬行类生物的崛起,one branch of which turned into Tyrannosaurus, Diplodocus and all the other names familiar from childhood.它们的一最后演化成了如今小学生们口中的暴龙、梁龙以及其它各种叫龙的动物。The idea that an impact caused the Permian extinction has been around for a while.导致二叠纪大灭绝的原因长期以来都没有一个定论。As at the end of the Permian, as at the end of the Cretaceous, huge volcanic eruptions had been going on for hundreds of thousands of years.在二叠纪和白垩纪末期,大量火山持续爆发了数百到数千年。These may have weakened the worlds ecosystems, making them vulnerable to an external shock.这可能破坏了地球的生态系统,使其难以抵御外来的破坏。But the abruptness of both extinctions indicates that the coup de grace was administered by something else,但是两次大灭绝来得如此突然,这说明了实施致命一击”的另有其人,and in the case of the Permian some fragments of meteorite of the correct age, found in rock in Antarctica, suggest that, as with the Cretaceous, that something was an asteroid or a comet.而且在南极洲的岩石里发现的一些陨星碎片与二叠纪的年代相吻合,这说明了地球在二叠纪与在白垩纪一样,遭受了小行星或是彗星的袭击。What was missing from the story, though, was a suitable crater.只不过这个故事里还缺一个部分—一个合适的陨石坑。Fracking hell!如同置身地狱一般的裂解反应Last year Dr Tohver and his colleagues thought they might have found it.去年,托瓦尔士和他的同事表示他们也许找到这个陨石坑了。They redated a hole that straddles the border of the states of Mato Grosso and Goias in Brazil, called the Araguainha crater, to 254.7m years, with a margin of error of plus or minus 2.5m years.他们重测了一个位于位于巴西马托·格罗索州和戈雅斯州交界的洞穴—阿拉瓜尼亚陨石坑,并确定其形成年代为2亿5470万年前,年代误差在正负250万年左右。Previous estimates had suggested Araguainha was 10m years younger,早期研究所估计的阿拉瓜尼亚陨石坑的形成时间要较这个数据晚1000万年,but Dr Tohver has put it within geological spitting distance of the extinction date, which itself has a margin of error of plus or minus 200,000 years.不过托瓦尔士把这个时间差归结于大灭绝发生的具体时间本身就有一个范围,大概是正负20万年的误差。Which would all be fine and dandy, except most people think Araguainha is too small to be the culprit. It is a mere 40km across.除开大部分人觉得阿拉瓜尼亚实在太小,不足以成为元凶以外,这对大灭绝来说会是个很好的解释。The Chicxulub crater in Mexico, which did for the dinosaurs, is 180km in diameter, and it may have been paired with an even bigger impact in the Indian Ocean.导致恐龙灭绝的墨西哥希克苏鲁伯陨石坑,其直径有180公里,而且它可能与同时期在印度洋产生的另一个更大的碰撞共同作用,从而导致白垩纪大灭绝。Dr Tohver, however, has an answer to this criticism.面对质疑,托瓦尔士有着合理的解释。His latest paper, just published inPalaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, describes the rock in the area in which Araguainha resides.他最近在古地理学,古气候学,古生态学”杂志上发表的一片文章详细描述了阿拉瓜尼亚附近的岩石性质。After an extensive geological survey, he and his team discovered that a sizeable amount of this rock is oil shale.经过了广泛的地质学研究调查后,他和他的团队发现这些岩石很多都是油页岩,Any hydrocarbons in the crater would certainly have been vaporised.这说明所有的碳氢化合物已经被汽化。More intriguingly, the researchers calculate that the impact would have generated thousands of earthquakes of up to magnitude 9.9 for hundreds of kilometres around.更有趣的是,研究人员通过计算发现撞击所产生的能量足以在附近数百公里的范围内产生几千次9.9级地震。In effect, it would have been the biggest fracking operation in history, releasing oil and gas from the shattered rock in prodigious quantities.从效果上来说,这也许是历史上最大的裂解工程,它将数量惊人的石油和天然气从岩石中释放出来。The upshot, Dr Tohver believes, would have been a huge burp of methane into the atmosphere.托瓦尔士相信,这导致了巨量的甲烷被排向大气层。Since methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, that burp would have resulted in instant global warming, making things too hot for much of the planets animal life.而甲烷是很强的温室效应气体,它就使得全球气温瞬时上升,过高的气温危及了许多物种的生存。Presto! The Permian mass extinction is explained.是的!这就是二叠纪物种大灭绝的解释。Determining whether this was really what happened will take a lot more digging, of course.当然,要确认这是不是造成这一切的真实原因还有待更多的探索研究。Even now, there are those who think the formation of the Chicxulub crater was a coincidence, and that what did for the dinosaurs was actually the volcanoes, so Dr Tohver will have to work hard to convince the sceptics.直到今天还有人认为希克苏鲁伯陨石坑的形成只不过是个巧合,真正让恐龙消亡的原因是火山爆发,所以托瓦尔士还需要加把劲来明他的假设。If he does, though, he will have proved himself a great geological detective, for he will have been responsible for solving one of the biggest puzzles in palaeontology.如果他做到了,他将明他是一个伟大的地质学发现者,因为他解开了古生物学中的一个最重要的谜题。 /201308/252459淮安包皮过长到哪治疗

淮安阳痿治疗的费用淮安哪里做处女膜修复比较好 Tourism and the economy旅游与经济Easy come, easy go来也匆匆去也匆匆Booming post-Olympics tourism won’t boost the economy as much as hoped蓬勃发展的后奥运旅游不会如期望那样提振经济Sep 28th 2013 |From the print editionBRITONS have had some good economic news to celebrate over the past few months. Unemployment is falling, house prices in England hit a record high in July and economic output appears to be growing at its fastest pace since 2010.过去几个月英国人有很多利好的经济新闻值得庆祝。失业率在下降,7月英格兰的房价创下历史新高,GDP呈现自2010年来的最快增速。At first glance Britain’s tourism industry appears to be contributing to the economic bounce. Data released this month by the Office for National Statistics suggest that there has been a big increase in foreign tourists visiting Britain since London hosted the Olympics last year. In the first seven months of 2013, foreign visitor numbers rose by 4%, compared with the same period in 2012, and spending was up 12%. In July 2013 foreign visitors spent 30% more than in July 2012, setting a new record.乍一看,英国的旅游业对经济反弹有所贡献。英国国家统计局本月公布的数据表明,自去年伦敦举办奥运会以来前往英国旅游的外国游客数量大增。2013年的前7个月相比2012年同期外国游客数量增加了4%,游客花费也增加了12%。2013年7月外国游客花费比去年同期增加了30%,创下了新纪录。Hotels and attractions nationwide say they are benefiting from the unexpected boost in the tourist trade. According to data produced by STRGlobal, a consultancy, hotel-occupancy rates rose in nearly every English region in the first half of 2013. London, in particular, has seen a surge in foreign tourists since the Olympics ended: hotel-occupancy rates in the capital jumped by seven percentage points to 89% in June compared with a year earlier.全国范围内的旅馆和旅游景点表示他们从旅游贸易意想不到的增加中受益。据咨询公司STRGlobal的数据显示,2013年前半年英国所有区域的酒店入住率都有所上升。尤其是伦敦的外国游客数量激增,奥运会结束以来,六月份伦敦的酒店入住率从去年的7%增加到89%。The government has been quick to attribute the tourism boom to the Olympics, in an effort to justify some of the £8.9 billion (.3 billion) spent staging them. There may be some truth in this. Visits from countries keen on the Olympics increased the most: up by 24% from Latin America and 11% from China, compared with growth of 1% from Europe and a fall of 4% in visitors from North America, according to VisitBritain, a tourism quango.政府迅速将这归因于奥运会的旅游热潮,努力为奥运会高达89亿英镑(143亿美元)的花费辩护。可能有一些道理。根据旅游半官方机构旅游英国的数据,来自热衷于奥运会国家的游客数量增长最多,相比欧洲增长的1%和北美4%的下降,来自拉丁美洲的游客数量增长了24%,来自中国的游客数量增长了11%。Will this post-Olympics surge in visitors attracted to Britain contribute much to its economic recovery? The net impact of tourism on output depends not only on how much cash foreign visitors spend, but also on what Britons spend abroad. And although record amounts are being spent in Britain by foreign tourists, Britons have upped their spending on foreign holidays by a similar amount. So far for 2013, the gap between what Britain earns and spends on tourism has remained around the same since the summer of 2011 (see chart). The average monthly tourism deficit for January to July 2013 was £1.125 billion, only £7m less than the previous two years’ average. And in spite of the influx of tourist cash this year, the tourism deficit this summer is still higher than during the Olympics.后奥运会英国游客激增会对英国经济复苏带来很大的贡献吗?旅游增长的净影响不仅取决于外国游客的消费,同时取决于英国游客出国的花费。尽管外国游客在英国的花费创了纪录,英国人在国外度假的消费也创下了相似的纪录。到2013年的目前为止,英国人在旅游上的花费和收入的差距一直跟2011年夏天没什么变化(见表)。2013年1月至7月的平均月旅游赤字为11.25亿英镑,只比上两年的平均水平少700万英镑。尽管今年大量现金从旅游业涌入,今年夏天的旅游赤字仍高于奥运会期间。Trading what Britain has lots of—rain and heritage—for reliable sunshine, which it lacks, may be no bad thing for most Britons. But tourism will have less to offer the economic recovery unless more Britons can be persuaded to holiday at home rather than overseas. Alas, selling rainy Britain abroad may prove easier than selling it to Britons themselves.将英国的阴雨和遗产同其缺乏的阳光作交换对大多数英国人来说没什么坏处。但是除非更多的英国人选择在本土度假,不然旅游业对英国经济复苏的影响将会很小。可惜的是,将阴雨连绵的英国推销给外国人比卖给自己人容易多了。201310/260678金湖县治疗附件炎哪家医院最好的

淮安四院做流产多少钱You may aly know that chocolate can be lethal to your pet, but did you know that onions can be toxic to your cats and dogs too? And I’m not just talking about their breath.也许你已经知道巧克力对宠物的杀伤力,但是你知道小猫小吃了洋葱会中毒吗?我不仅仅说的是他们的呼吸。You see all forms of onions–cooked, raw, dehydrated–contain sulfurcompounds. When your pet ingests onions, these compounds are broken down into what are known as disulphidecompounds; these are toxic to red blood cell membranes and cause them to form small bubble-like projections that are known as Heinz bodies. These bubbles make the red blood cell more rigid, and weaken its outer membrane, which means not only that the cell can’t flex and twist as it circulates in the body, but that it is more likely to rupture.要知道,新鲜的、脱水的、烹饪的洋葱,无一例外含有硫化物。宠物摄食洋葱,化合物就分解成二硫化物,红细胞膜“中毒”,形成海恩茨氏小体的突起小泡。海恩茨氏小体使红细胞僵硬,外膜受损。红细胞在体内循环,无法弯曲和扭转,更易破裂。Now, the main function of red blood cells is to circulate oxygen throughout the body. Without enough of these, the animal becomes anemic, and–if the bone marrow isn’t given enough time to regenerate new red blood cells–it may even die. This also explains why the effects of onion toxicity can take a few days to show up, and why even very small amounts of onions can still have a cumulative damaging effect.红细胞的主要功能是循环体内的氧气。红细胞的缺失诱发动物贫血;如果骨髓没有及时更新红细胞,动物就会丧命。这也是洋葱毒性在数日后才得以显现的原因,而极少量的洋葱也能带来极大的危害。So what can you do to protect your dog or cat? Make sure to labels. For example, baby food, which people use to entice their sick cats to eat, often contains onion powder. Also, do not feed your pet table scraps that contain onions in any shape or form. And it is always if your cat or dog begins vomiting, acting depressed, or breathes rapidly. Don’t delay! Take them to the vet.那么,你如何保护宠物呢?请仔细阅读标签。比如,人们用来喂生病宠物猫的婴儿食品中就常含有洋葱粉。也不要喂给宠物任何含洋葱的残羹剩饭。此外,如果你的宠物猫出现呕吐、精神沉郁、呼吁紧促等症状,就赶快送去兽医诊所! /201304/233897 楚州区人民医院医院男科咨询淮安妇保院治疗腋臭狐臭多少钱




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