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哈市九洲是不是有主任普及大夫

2019年08月18日 11:43:18 | 作者:美门户 | 来源:新华社
The neuronal signals for smiles usually start in the cortex of our brain. From there they travel to the deeper part, the brainstem -- which, in terms of evolution, also happens to be one of the oldest parts of our brain. From there, a nerve that#39;s large enough to be visible to the naked eye, called the seventh cranial nerve, carries the signal in front of the ear to the more central part of the face, where it reaches the smile muscle.微笑的神经信号通常开始于我们的大脑皮质。他们从那里传输到更深的部分,脑干——它从进化的角度来讲,也恰好是我们的大脑最古老的部分之一。从那里,一根可以大到肉眼可见的称为第七脑神经的神经,把耳朵前面的信号传到面部更中央的部分,那里它可以到达微笑肌。The smile muscle is attached from the mouth to the cheekbone. When this nerve fires, the muscle is activated, the corners of our mouth are pulled up, and we look happy. And if it is a true smile, one that signifies real enjoyment by its wearer, then a branch of the facial nerve also activates little muscles around the eyes, leading to wrinkling around the eyes in addition to a mouth smile.微笑肌附在口腔到颧骨上。当这个神经点燃时,肌肉被激活,我们的嘴角被拉起,然后我们就看起来是快乐的。如果它是一个真正的微笑,表示笑着的人真正的愉悦,那么面部神经的分也会激活眼睛周围的小肌肉,导致眼睛周围的皱纹,除非它只是一个嘴角的微笑。Baseball players who had the broadest smiles lived, on average, seven years longer than those who smiled the least.有着最为灿烂的笑容的棒球球员平均比笑的最少的棒球球员多活七年。The scientific analysis of the smile really began with the French anatomist Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne de Boulogne. In the 1860s, he used electrical currents to make his subjects#39; ;facial muscles contract to speak the language of the emotions and the sentiments.; Duchenne believed that one could gain insight into the ways the face expresses emotions by studying the muscles underlying facial movement. He recorded the expressions produced by the electrical stimulation by taking photographs and was the first to use photography to prove a scientific theory. Duchenne showed that in the particular smile he called the ;smile of joy,; the muscle that is just to the side of the eyes (called orbicularis oculi) is activated. When this muscle contracts, it creates creases, sometimes called crow#39;s feet. He called this the ;true smile,; the pure smile of enjoyment. Duchenne concluded that the mouth smile obeys the will, but the eye smile does not. He said, ;The muscle around the eye ... is only brought into play by a true feeling, an agreeable emotion. Its inertia in smiling unmasks a false friend.;微笑的科学分析真正开始于法国解剖学家纪尧姆 - 本杰明 - 阿芒德·杜兴·德·布洛涅。在19世纪60年代,他用电流使他的实验对象的“面部肌肉收缩,来表达情绪和情感。”杜氏认为,一个人通过学习基本脸部运动,可以洞悉肌肉表达情感的方式。他摄影记录下了电流刺激产生的表情,而且这是第一次用摄影来明一个科学理论。杜氏表明,在他称之为“欢乐的笑容”的特定微笑中,只是眼睛边的肌肉(称为眼轮匝肌)被激活。当肌肉收缩时,它产生了褶皱,有时也被称为鱼尾纹。他称之为“真正的微笑”,愉悦的纯净笑容。杜氏的结论是,嘴角的笑意从意愿,但眼睛的笑容没有。他说:“眼部周围的肌肉...只被一种真实的感觉,一种愉快的情感牵动。它在微笑中的惯性揭露了虚假的朋友。”In the image at right, Duchenne applies electrodes to his cooperative subject in order to stimulate the contraction of the smile muscle (zygomaticus major) that pulls the corners of the mouth up when we smile. His subject is clearly enjoying this. Duchenne#39;s jolt of electricity activates the smile muscle around the mouth, but the gentleman#39;s eyes are also smiling, as seen by the creases formed just to the side of his eyes so the happiness comes from inside. When Duchenne first applied the electricity, only the smile muscle around the mouth was activated; he realized that it didn#39;t look like a true, natural smile, so he told this gentleman a joke to make his eyes smile as well.在右边的图片上,杜氏对他的合作的实验对象运用电极,以刺激微笑肌(主要是颧肌)的收缩,它在我们微笑时拉起我们的嘴角使其上扬。他的实验对象显然正在享受这个。杜兴的电流激活嘴周围的微笑肌肉,但这位绅士的眼睛也在笑,从只在眼睛周围形成的褶皱中透出了快乐。当杜氏首次运用电流时,只有嘴周围的微笑肌肉被激活;他意识到它看起来并不像一个真正的,自然的微笑,所以他给这位先生讲了个笑话,使他的眼睛也笑了。Paul Ekman, who led the scientific investigation of facial expressions in the twentieth century, has shown that Duchenne was right. Few of us can fake an eye smile. If you#39;re sitting across from a new business associate and he smiles at you but you#39;re still not sure if you should sign off on a new business venture, look at those little lines around the outside of his eyes. If they wrinkle up like crow#39;s feet, then his smile is a real signifier of pleasure or happiness. The absence of smiling eyes should alert you that your new associate#39;s smile is not necessarily as friendly as it looks.保罗·埃克曼,在二十世纪领导了面部表情的科学研究,他表明杜氏是正确的。我们很少能假冒眼睛的微笑。如果你坐在一个新的商业伙伴对面,他向你微笑,但你仍然不确定是否应该同意一个新的商业投机,看看他的眼睛外面周围那些细纹。如果它们皱得像鱼尾纹,那么他的微笑就真正意味着快乐或者幸福。没有微笑的眼睛可能提醒你,你新合伙人的微笑并不一定像它看起来那样友好。A century after Duchenne recorded his remarkable experiments, Dr. Paul Ekman honored the anatomist by terming the smile involving the eyes the ;Duchenne smile.; Ekman found that the failure to distinguish between different types of smiles showed up in much scientific research over the years and might explain contradictory findings regarding the universal meaning of the smile. Other scientists confirmed their findings and found that the Duchenne smile appears significantly more often when people are freely enjoying themselves than in situations that would require feigned smiles. The eyes do not lie unless, of course, the person has received Botox around the eyes, in which case the skin around the eyes is unable to wrinkle up, no matter how true a smile.杜兴记录了他非凡的实验的一个世纪后,保罗·艾克曼士为了表示对解剖学家的敬意,把涉及眼睛的微笑称为“杜兴微笑”。艾克曼发现,区分不同类型微笑的失败出现在历年来很多科学研究中,这可能解释了关于微笑的普遍意义的矛盾研究结果。其他科学家实了他们的发现,而且发现当人们自由地享受他们自己时,杜兴微笑明显出现得比要求假装微笑的情况下更多。眼睛是不会说谎的,当然,除非这个人眼睛周围已经打了肉毒杆菌,在这种情况下,不论笑容是如何的真挚,眼睛周围的皮肤也不能够皱起来。Certainly what we see greatly influences when we smile, but it is not necessary. We need no visual feedback to smile. Darwin discovered that those who are born blind will still smile appropriately during a conversation. You can smile when all alone, but smiling is definitely enhanced by socializing; it happens six times more frequently in social settings.当然,当我们微笑时我们看到极大的影响,但这是不必要的。我们不需要视觉反馈去微笑。达尔文发现,那些天生的盲人在一场交谈中依然会微笑得体。当独自一人时,你可以微笑,但是微笑绝对是通过社交来增强的;它在社会环境中更频繁,是独自一人时候的六倍频率。Some of the complexities of smiling can be appreciated by examining those who can#39;t do it normally. People who have suffered brain damage may not be able to smile when asked to but will still involuntarily smile at a joke. Conversely, patients suffering from Parkinson#39;s disease, a disease of dopamine-containing neurons in the brain, may be able to turn up the corners of the mouth when asked to smile but after getting a joke may lack the ability to smile as a natural, automatic response. Patients who have had a stroke leading to paralysis of half of their face lack an ability to voluntarily move one side of their face. They show a crooked smile when asked to grin but a normal smile on hearing a joke, indicating intact nerve pathways beyond their conscious control. Clearly, the pathways for smiling are quite elaborate, with both unconscious and conscious connections that receive inputs from different parts of the brain.有些微笑的复杂性可以通过检查那些不能正常地做到这一点的人来领会。当遭受脑损伤的人被要求微笑时可能无法微笑,但是听了一个笑话还是会不由自主地微笑。相反,患帕金森氏症,一种大脑中含有多巴胺神经元疾病的患者,要求微笑时也许能够把嘴角向上弯,但听了一个笑话后,可能就缺乏作为一种自然,自动的反应的微笑能力。曾中风导致一半的脸麻痹的患者缺乏一种自发运动他们脸的一边的能力。当被要求露齿而笑的时候,他们表现出一个扭曲的笑容,但听到一个笑话时是一个正常的笑容,说明完好无损的神经通路超出了他们的意识控制。显然,微笑的途径是相当复杂的,既有从大脑的不同部位接收输入的无意识的连接,又有有意识的连接。One wonders whether it is only a coincidence that those of us who socialize the most tend to get less depressed. We have seen how socializing is a great activator of smiling -- perhaps smiling is doing more than we think. Do children suffer less often from depression because they spend more time playing and smiling? It is so easy to forget that your face is always speaking to you: 24/7, your brain is keeping track of how many smiles you created with your face. Your smile scorecard is not something you are consciously aware of, but your unconscious has intimate knowledge of it.人们不禁要问,我们这些与人交往总是不怎么碰壁是否仅仅是一个巧合。我们已经看到了如何应酬是微笑一个极好的催化剂——也许微笑比我们想象的做得更多。孩子是否因为他们花更多的时间玩耍和微笑,患有阴郁症的几率更小?你的脸总是对你说:每天24小时,你的大脑保持追踪你在你的脸上创造了多少笑容,这是很容易忘记的。你的微笑记分卡不是你是自觉意识到的东西,但你的潜意识非常熟悉它。I believe that smiling more benefits you directly -- even without its social benefits. You go to the gym to strengthen your muscles. Why not go to the smiling gym to strengthen your positive emotions?我相信,微笑对你有更直接的益处—— 即使没有它的社会效益。你去健身房增强你的肌肉,为什么不去微笑健身房,以激励你的积极情绪?One study found that women who had smiled the most in their college yearbook photos had happier lives, happier marriages, and fewer personal setbacks in the following 30 years. Another study finds a correlation between how big a smile you made for a baseball card photo and how long you will live. Those baseball players who had the broadest smiles lived, on average, seven years longer than those who smiled the least.一项研究发现,在他们的大学纪念册照片里笑的最多的女人有更幸福的生活,幸福的婚姻,并在随后的30年里有更少的个人挫折。另一项研究发现在你为一张棒球卡照片笑的有多大和你会活多久之间的一种相关性。这些有着最为灿烂的笑容的棒球球员平均比笑的最少的棒球球员多活七年。How could smiling lead to happier marriages and longer lives? The key is probably the reduction of stress that your body and mind feel. Smiling helps generate positive happy emotions within you, and this leads to a decrease in the stress-induced hormones that negatively affect your physical and mental health. Now, of course, there is only a correlation between smiling and a happy life -- it certainly doesn#39;t prove that smiling will make your marriage better or lengthen your life. Perhaps those who smiled most were just innately happier people or smiled more because life was aly treating them well in college, predicting more good things to come. Studies such as these can#39;t show what causes what. Waves are correlated with beaches, but do beaches cause waves or waves bring beaches?微笑是怎样使婚姻更幸福,使生命更长的?关键可能是你的身体和头脑感受压力的减少。微笑让你内在产生积极愉快的情绪,这导致了负面影响你的身体和心理健康的应力感生激素的减少。现在,当然,微笑和幸福的生活之间只有一种关联——这当然不能明微笑会让你的婚姻更好或者延长你的寿命。也许那些笑的最多的人只是天生更快乐的人,或者笑的多是因为在大学里的生活已经对他们很好,预示着更美好的事情到来。研究像这些的东西不能表明是什么引起了什么。波浪与海滩相关,但是是海滩引起了波浪吗?或者是波浪带来的海滩?But if one assumes that those who smile more will be happier, what happens to those who smile less? Shouldn#39;t those who developed difficulty smiling as adults suffer more from depression, all other things being equal? Nature has done the experiment if one knows where to look. To probe for cause and effect, doctors studied what happened to patients who, because of facial nerve damage, were unable to move their faces normally. The facial nerve is commonly damaged in adult life by a condition known as Bell#39;s palsy. There are three major parts of the facial nerve, so it is possible to lose the ability to frown but be able to smile, or vice versa. These researchers asked their patients to raise their eyebrows, squint, smile, and pucker their mouths to assess the extent of their facial disability. Their hypothesis was that the inability to smile would increase one#39;s risk of depression.但是,如果假设那些多笑的人会更快乐,那些笑的人少会发生什么?不应该那些难以微笑的成年人人更容易患有抑郁症,所有其他的事情都是一样的吗?自然已经做过实验,如果有人知道去哪里看。为了探讨原因和影响,医生研究了面部神经受损,无法正常移动他们的脸的患者发生了什么。面部神经在成年生活中一般是被称为贝尔氏麻痹的疾病损伤的。面部神经有三个主要部分,所以失去皱眉头的能力,却能够微笑是可能的,反之亦然。这些研究人员要求他们的病人,以扬起他们的眉毛,眯着眼睛,微笑,抿嘴以评估他们的面部残疾程度。他们的假设是,无法微笑会增加一个人患抑郁症风险。The results showed that a general impairment in moving one#39;s face was not associated with depression. However, patients who specifically lacked the ability to smile were much more likely to become depressed, and their depression was more severe. There are several possible explanations. First, smiling occurs in social situations and helps facilitate positive emotions and relationships with others. Those individuals who find themselves unable to smile may experience more social isolation, leading to more depressive symptoms from loneliness. This could be a strong negative feedback loop. Second, smiling, by activation of the smile muscle, would initiate a feedback loop to the brain, activating our happy part of the brain, contributing to a more positive mood and more smiling. Those with impaired smiling would have the positive feedback interrupted and more consistent weight on the side of depression. I believe the second explanation is more important, but there is no evidence to help us decide.结果表明,移动一个人的脸的一般损伤与抑郁症无关。然而,明确地缺乏微笑的能力的患者更可能变得沮丧,他们的抑郁症更严重。有几种可能的解释。首先,面带微笑出现在社交场合,有助于促进正面的情绪和与他人的人际关系。这些发现自己无法微笑的人可能会遇到更多的社交隔离,从孤独导致更多的抑郁症状。这可能是一个强烈的消极反馈循环。第二,微笑,通过激活微笑的肌肉,会启动一个反馈环路到大脑,激活我们大脑快乐的一部分,促成一种更加积极的心情和更多的微笑。那些有身体缺陷微笑的人将中断积极的反馈,对抑郁症的一面是更一致的加重。我认为第二种解释更重要,但没有据来帮助我们决定。 /201410/337017Ever wonder if that nice guy is flirting with you? There are a few proven ways that can tell you if he is interested in you. While it’s difficult to body language at times, it’s possible if you know where to start. Here are 10 ways that men unconsciously and even consciously let you know that they like you. Take a look, see what you see and maybe you will find your love right now.曾否心里嘀咕过,那位不错的男人,是不是在向你调情吗?有些行之有效的方式,可让你知道,那男人是否对你感冒。虽然,要读懂肢体语言,偶尔会有点难,但是,如果清楚何处去着手,读懂肢体语言是做得到的。男人会无意识地,甚至是有意识地让你明白,他们喜欢你,以下是他们这样做的十种方式。读一读,看看能学到点什么,或许你马上就能找到心头之爱。 /201408/321015

Parents seem to be looking in an unusual place for inspiration for baby names this year - their smartphones and iPads.今年,家长们似乎开始另辟蹊径,以智能手机和iPad为灵感给宝宝取名。The number of babies named after Apple products has soared - Apple, Siri and Mac have all risen in popularity as baby names this year, according to parenting advice site BabyCenter#39;s annual report.美国育儿网站BabyCenter的年度报告称,今年取名为Apple产品名称的宝宝大幅增加,取名为Apple,Siri和Mac的宝宝都有增加。Siri - the name of the #39;personal assistant#39; app on iPhone - has risen 5% in popularity, and the name Apple has leapt 585 places up BabyCenter#39;s chart this year.取名为iPhone手机中“个人助理”应用程序Siri的宝宝增加了5%,Apple已经在BabyCenter今年的宝宝取名排行榜中跃升了585位。The huge success of iPhone and iPad seem to be behind the new trend - BabyCenter describes the youngsters as #39;iBabies#39;.iPhone和iPad产品的巨大成功成为这一趋势的原因。BabyCenter网站将这一代宝宝称为iBabies。;The smart phone may just be the best parenting tool since diapers, and some moms and dads are paying homage to industry leader Apple in their choice of baby names, ; says Linda Murray, the site#39;s global editor in chief.该网站的全球总编琳达-莫雷说:“自从纸尿裤问世以来,智能手机可能是出现的最好的育儿工具,而且很多父母在给宝宝取名时以此向工业先驱苹果公司表示敬意。”;The moniker Apple, though still an unusual choice, rose 15% for girls, vaulting a whopping 585 spots.;“尽管Apple还不是常用的宝宝名字,但取名为Apple的女婴今年增加了15%,跃升了585位。”;For boys, the name Mac jumped 12%. And parents sure like the sound of Siri: The company#39;s voice-enabled personal assistant climbed 5% on the list of girl names.;“取名Mac的男婴今年增加了12%。家长们的确很喜欢Siri的发音:苹果公司的这款有声个人助理程序在女婴取名排行中上升了5%。”Space-themed baby names - perhaps inspired by the publicity around NASA#39;s Mars Curiosity Rover - also rose in popularity.受空间探索启发而取的宝宝名字也有增加,这也许是受到美国宇航局发射好奇号火星探测器的影响。;It seems space was a huge naming inspiration for parents this year: Sky, Star, Luna, Skylar, Heaven, Stella, and Mars all flew higher than last year. BabyCenter moms aren’t alone; celebrities like Uma Thurman – who named her daughter Luna – are looking to the sky as well, ; says Miller.米勒说:“看起来今年受空间探索启发给宝宝取名的父母很多:取名为Sky, Star, Luna, Skylar, Heaven, Stella, 和Mars的宝宝都有上升。BabyCenter上统计的妈妈们并不孤单,乌玛-瑟曼等名人也以此给宝宝取名,她给宝宝取名为Luna。”Last week, a couple claimed to have called their baby Hashtag, after the Twitter term.上周,一对夫妇给他们的宝宝取名为Twitter词汇Hashtag(标签)。A Facebook post said, ;Hashtag Jameson was born at 10 o#39;clock last nite. She weys 8pounds and i luv her so much!!!!!!;Facebook上的一篇帖子写道:“Hashtag Jameson昨晚10点出生了,重八磅,我好爱她!”Later, the authenticity of the post was disputed, with some claiming that the name was a fake, or a viral promotion.随后,这篇帖子的真实性遭到怀疑,有人认为这个名字是伪造的,或者是一种病毒传销。 /201405/294596

The ed Kingdom ranks as one of the most successful marriages in history. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have survived ancient hatreds, tribal rivalry and war. Each nation has been enriched by a journey of enlightenment, empire, shared energy and enterprise.联合王国(ed Kingdom)是史上最成功的联姻之一。英格兰、苏格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰经历过历史恩怨、部落敌对和战争,却最终走到了一起。启蒙运动、帝国的辉煌、共同的活力与进取,这段旅程让其中的每个民族都得到了丰富。In seven days, this splendid mess of a union, to e Simon Schama, the British historian, risks being separated into its national parts. Scotland will vote in a referendum to decide whether to stay in the UK or sunder bonds stretching back to 1707. Opinion polls suggest the result is too close to call, a prospect which has alarmed financial markets, wrongfooted allies and sent a complacent coalition government scrambling to find a last-minute sweetener to win over the Scots.几天后,这个“伟大而混乱的联盟”(借用英国历史学家西蒙#8226;沙玛(Simon Schama)的说法)就有可能分裂为不同的民族国家。苏格兰将在9月18日举行公投,投票决定是继续留在英国,还是割裂苏格兰与英格兰自1707年起结成的联盟。民意调查结果显示,持和反对独立的票数可能过于接近、难有清晰的胜负。这一前景让金融市场陷入了动荡,让英国的盟友慌了神,让原本自命不凡的英国联合政府急急忙忙寻找最后时刻的笼络手段,以争取苏格兰人留下。Empires and nation states are not immune to break-up, but there is little precedent for a hitherto stable modern democracy splitting in peacetime, in the middle of an economic recovery. This is not the time for recrimination. For the moment, it is enough for this newspaper to declare that the path of separation is a fool’s errand, one fraught with danger and uncertainty.帝国和民族国家有时不免会分裂,但一个迄今为止稳定的现代民主国家,在和平时期和经济复苏进程中分裂,这样的先例少之又少。眼下不是相互指责的时候。就目前而言,英国《金融时报》认为,仅仅这样说就足够了——分裂是一件徒劳无益、充满了危险和不确定的事情。Scotland is a proud and vibrant nation. Scots have contributed disproportionately to the union. They have played a leading role in arts, commerce, literature, the military, politics and sport. But a vote in favour of secession would be an irreversible act with profound consequences, not merely for 5m Scots but also for the other 58m citizens of England, Wales and Northern Ireland (including 750,000 Scots living and working outside Scotland who under the terms of the referendum have no say on the future of their country).苏格兰是一个充满了自豪和活力的民族。苏格兰人对联盟的贡献远远超过了其在英国总人口中所占比例。苏格兰人在艺术、商业、文学、军事、政治和体育中发挥着领先的作用。但投票决定独立是一件无法回头的事情,会产生深远影响——不仅会影响到500万苏格兰人,还会影响到其他5800万生活在英格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰的英国人(其中包括75万在苏格兰以外生活和工作、根据公投规则无法为自己国家的未来投上一票的苏格兰人)。The act of separation would diminish the UK in every international body, notably the EU. It would raise complex – and still unanswered – questions about the common defence of the British Isles, the future of the currency and political arrangements for the rest of the UK. Above all, a Yes vote would ignore the lessons of the 20th century, a chapter in European history indelibly scarred by narrow nationalism.分裂会削弱英国在每一个国际机构中的地位,特别是在欧盟(EU)中的地位。随之而来的还有各种复杂、且仍然无解的问题,比如不列颠群岛的共同防卫、英镑的未来、以及英国其余地区在政治上的安排。最重要的是,如果投票结果持独立,那将是忽视20世纪的教训——狭隘的民族主义在欧洲的这一历史篇章中留下了永恒的伤疤。A union born of a now-lost empire is one entirely suited to the world of the 21st century. The nation states that prosper in the age of globalisation are ones that bind themselves together in mutual endeavour. The experience of small states in the wake of the financial crisis is far from happy. Iceland and Ireland were left cruelly exposed. Further east, the Baltic states, brave and resourceful as the Scots, are members of the EU and Nato but still feel vulnerable to the bear’s paw of a revanchist Russia.脱胎于如今已消逝的大英帝国的英格兰与苏格兰的联盟完全适合于21世纪的世界。在全球化时代蓬勃发展的民族国家,是那些通过共同努力实现民族联合的国家。金融危机后那些小国的经历堪称悲惨。冰岛和爱尔兰当时都非常无助。往东,与苏格兰人一样勇敢和足智多谋的波罗的海国家,尽管是欧盟和北约(Nato)成员国,但在复仇主义俄罗斯的熊爪面前仍然自觉脆弱。The case against secession cannot rest on nostalgia, though the Better Together campaign has been lamentably short of passion compared with the energetic, well-funded Yes effort run by Alex Salmond, the beguiling first minister of Scotland. It must rest first on an understanding of the political forces which have made independence a tempting prospect for Scots, as well as a hard-nosed assessment of the risks involved for all concerned.反对分裂不能只打怀旧牌,但令人扼腕的是,“在一起更好”(Better Together)运动与“独立苏格兰”(Yes Scotland)运动相比太缺乏了。富有迷惑力的苏格兰首席大臣亚历克斯#8226;萨尔蒙德(Alex Salmond)领导的“独立苏格兰”运动则充满活力,且资金充裕。要有理有据地反对分裂,首先要理解是哪些政治作用力使得独立成为苏格兰人向往的前景,并对涉及所有相关方的风险进行注重实际的评估。The debate about devolving power to Scotland goes back more than a century. Keir Hardie, the Scottish Labour leader, proposed home rule in 1888 but his call carried little resonance. Scots were playing a leading role in ruling one-quarter of the world’s population. Glasgow was famed as the “second city of the empire”.关于向苏格兰下放权力的辩论可追溯至一个多世纪以前。1888年,当时的苏格兰工党领袖基尔#8226;哈迪(Keir Hardie)曾呼吁苏格兰自治,但反响不大。那时的大英帝国统治着全世界四分之一的人口,而苏格兰人正积极参与这种统治。格拉斯哥在当时被誉为“大英帝国第二大城市”。The ties that bind have loosened over the past 70 years. The empire is gone, and the workshop of the world is no more. Scotland’s transition to a post-industrialised economy has been painful, though its overall economic performance over recent decades has been strong.曾经紧密的纽带在过去70年中渐渐松弛。大英帝国已逝去,英国也不再是“世界工厂”。苏格兰经济在后工业时代经历了痛苦的转型,不过在近几十年,其经济一直整体表现强劲。England and Scotland have grown apart politically. In the 1950s, the Conservative and Unionist party – to remind David Cameron’s party of its proper name – had an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in Scotland. Today, the Tory party’s representation has shrunk to a single MP, partly a legacy of Margaret Thatcher’s ill-judged poll tax and the benign neglect of a strong pound which devastated manufacturing north and south of the border. The discovery of North Sea oil in the 1960s further reinforced Scottish nationalism.英格兰和苏格兰在政治上渐行渐远。上世纪50年代,在英国国会里代表苏格兰各选区的议席中,保守与统一党(Conservative and Unionist party,保守党的现任首相戴维#8226;卡梅伦应注意,这才是保守党的全称)占绝对多数。如今,托利党(Tory party,保守党的别称——译者注)议席缩减为仅1席。这在某种程度上要归罪于玛格丽特#8226;撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)当年失策的人头税,以及对英镑走强的善意忽视(强势英镑摧毁了苏格兰和英格兰的制造业)。上世纪60年代北海发现石油,进一步助长了苏格兰人的民族主义。Tony Blair believed he could stymie the nationalist movement with more devolution of powers. His Labour government established a Scottish parliament at Holyrood. In retrospect, devolution did nothing to halt the secular decline of Labour in Scotland. Too many of the party’s heavyweights treated Scotland as a rotten borough to help them to power in London. Devolution may have encouraged further divergence on policies such as pensions, social care or university education from those in England.托尼#8226;布莱尔(Tony Blair)以为他可以通过加大权力下放来阻止民族主义运动。他领导的工党政府在爱丁堡的圣路德(Holyrood)建立了苏格兰议会。回过头来看,权力下放丝毫未能阻止工党在苏格兰的长期衰落。工党太多重量级人物都曾将苏格兰当作“烂行政区”(rotten borough,指《1832年改革法案》(Reform Act 1832)出台前,英国的一些选民数量极少、因而选票容易纵的行政区——译者注),借之帮助自己在伦敦高升。权力下放或许促使了苏格兰与英格兰在养老、社会保障、大学教育等政策方面的差异进一步扩大。Mr Salmond, a seasoned operator, has exploited the populist mood. Voters are angry about austerity caused by the financial crisis and alienated from the political establishment. Mr Salmond casts himself as an insurgent representing a new brand of civic nationalism in which the Scots will have control over their fate in a fresh young democracy.萨尔蒙德是个老道的操纵者,他一直在利用这种民粹主义情绪。选民对金融危机导致的紧缩政策感到愤怒,与政治当权派产生了隔阂。萨尔蒙德将自己塑造为一个反叛者,代表一种新的公民民族主义,跟随这种民族主义,苏格兰人将通过一个崭新的新生民主国家掌握自己的命运。Mr Salmond can tug on the emotions of his fellow countrymen but he has given few credible answers about the challenges – economic, social and international – which would face Scotland. His Panglossian pitch is that the Scots can have the best of all possible worlds: independence, the monarchy and the pound, and that a Scotland which retreats into a narrower nationalist identity will somehow be better equipped to prosper in a world of globalisation.萨尔蒙德可以利用同胞的感情,但对于苏格兰可能面临的经济、社会和国际方面的挑战,他没有给出多少可信的。他的论调洋溢着过分乐观主义,说苏格兰可以拥有一切最好的——独立、君主制、还有英镑;他还说,苏格兰在退回更狭隘的民族主义身份之后,将以某种方式变得更适于在全球化世界中蓬勃发展。His argument contains glaring inconsistencies. A currency union demands a political union. The eurozone’s travails show us as much. Mark Carney, governor of the Bank of England, made clear again this week that political independence is incompatible with maintaining sterling as the currency of choice. Mr Salmond insists the English establishment is bluffing. This is no bluff. The currency uncertainty will blight every aspect of the Scottish economy, from commercial lending to mortgages. Without total clarity, every Scottish citizen is left exposed.他的主张有显而易见的矛盾之处。货币联盟要求政治联盟。欧元区的痛苦经历就充分表明了这一点。英国央行(BoE)行长马克#8226;卡尼(Mark Carney)上周已明确表示,政治独立与保留英镑为法定货币,两者不可兼得。萨尔蒙德坚称,英格兰当权派是在危言耸听。但这不是危言耸听。货币方面的不确定将让苏格兰经济的每个方面蒙上阴影,从商业贷款到抵押贷款。没有充分的确定性,每个苏格兰公民都面临风险。Mr Salmond claims that separation is the best guarantee of future prosperity. His calculations are based on much wishful thinking covering vital matters such as the future oil price and how much of the UK’s debt would be assumed by the Scots. He presumes that it serves no one’s interest to be unreasonable about the terms of divorce, but he under-estimates the psychological shock. No one can predict the consequences.萨尔蒙德宣称,独立是未来繁荣的最佳保。他打的算盘大都基于一厢情愿的想法,掩盖了未来石油价格、苏格兰将承担多大份额的英国债务等关键问题。他认为,提出离谱的分家条款对任何人都没有好处,但他低估了心理的冲击。没有人能预测到这会产生何种影响。Nor is it obvious why Scotland will gain early and automatic entry into the EU. Other European states with their own separatist movements – notably Spain – have little incentive to agree to a quick deal. The only certainty is uncertainty, at a high cost to Scotland and the UK. The shift of deposits and money out of Scotland this week is a harbinger.苏格兰为何将能尽早和“自动”加入欧盟也令人费解。其他存在分裂运动的欧盟国家,特别是西班牙,没有多少动力同意迅速达成苏格兰入盟协议。唯一确定的事就是不确定,这对苏格兰和英国都意味着高昂的代价。上周存款和资金流出苏格兰,就是一个兆头。There must be a better way. Britain needs a new political settlement that implements at home what it preaches in Europe: subsidiarity. For too long, the British government has imposed a “Whitehall-knows-best” policy on the nations and regions. More devolution is the answer, but not at any price. Mr Cameron and his London-based colleagues should t carefully in the coming days. It is far from clear how England, the preponderant power, would fit into a federalised union in which Scotland enjoyed all political gifts short of independence.必然存在更好的方式。英国需要新的政治安排,将其在欧洲鼓吹的辅助原则(subsidiarity,即中央权力机构应起辅助作用,只履行地方机构不能履行的职责——译者注)应用到自己身上。太长时间以来,英国政府对各民族和各地区都实行“白厅最懂”政策。加大权力下放是解决方法,但不是不惜代价。未来几天,卡梅伦和他的伦敦同僚们应该小心行事。在一个让苏格兰享有除独立以外的一切政治好处的联邦制联盟中,占有优势的英格兰该如何摆正自己的位置,这一点还远不清楚。Everything turns on the vote on September 18. It is not too late to remind the Scots and the rest of the UK how much they have benefited from being British. Great Britain stands for an expansive and inclusive view of the world. The union is something precious, not a bauble to be cast aside. In a week’s time, the Scots can vote with a sense of ambition to build on those successes. Rather than retreat into tribalism, they can continue to be part of a nation rooted not just in history and culture but a common destiny which over three centuries has served all so well.9月18日投票那一天,一切都会改变。我们应该提醒苏格兰人和其他地方的英国人,英国人的身份带给了他们多少好处,现在提醒还不晚。大不列颠代表一种视野开阔、具有包容性的世界观。英国这个联盟是宝物,不是什么可以随便扔掉的小玩意。几天后,苏格兰人就可以带着续写成功的豪情投票了。与其退回部落主义,他们可以继续做联合王国的一部分,这个国家不仅根源于历史和文化,还根源于三个多世纪以来带给所有人福祉的共同目标。 /201409/328390

Nearly every parent loses control and screams at the children now and then. But what if you do it repeatedly?几乎每一位父母都有情绪失控和对孩子高声叫嚷的时候。但如果你频频如此呢?Researchers suspect parents are yelling more. Parents have been conditioned to avoid spanking, so they vent their anger and frustration by shouting instead. Three out of four parents yell, scream or shout at their children or teens about once a month, on average, for misbehaving or making them angry, research shows. Increasingly, therapists and parenting experts are homing in on how it hurts a child, as well as how to stop it.研究人员猜测,父母如今吼孩子比以前更频繁了。父母已经习惯于不动手打孩子屁股,因此他们会通过大喊大叫来发泄愤怒和不满。研究显示,四分之三的父母会因家中幼童或青少年 犯错误或惹他们生气而吼叫、尖叫或大喊,平均每月一次。治疗师和家庭教育专家正越来越多地关注这类行为会对孩子产生何种伤害以及如何阻止这类行为。Raising your voice isn#39;t always bad. Loudly describing a problem can call attention to it without hurting anyone, says Adele Faber, a parenting trainer in Roslyn Heights, N.Y., and co-author of #39;How to Be the Parent You Always Wanted to Be.#39; For example: #39;I just mopped the kitchen floor and now it is covered with muddy footprints.#39;提高嗓门并不总是坏事。纽约州罗斯林海茨(Roslyn Heights)的育儿培训师、《怎样成为理想中的父母》(How to Be the Parent You Always Wanted to Be)一书作者之一阿黛尔#12539;费伯(Adele Faber)称,大声描述一个问题能在不伤害任何人的情况下引起关注。例如:“我刚刚拖过厨房地板,现在又被踩得到处是泥。”Yelling becomes damaging when it is a personal attack, belittling or blaming a child with statements such as #39;Why can#39;t you ever remember?#39; or, #39;You always get this wrong!#39; Ms. Faber says.但费伯说,当你把吼叫作为人身攻击,用“你不能长点记性吗?”或者“你总是做错!”这种话来责备或挖苦孩子时,就会给孩子带来伤害。Many parents lose control because they take children#39;s misbehavior or rebellion personally, research shows: They feel attacked or think the child#39;s actions reflect poorly on them. Parents who see a child#39;s negative emotions as unexpected, overwhelming and upsetting tend to feel more threatened and frustrated with each new outburst, says a study published earlier this month in the Journal of Family Psychology. This pattern, called #39;emotional flooding,#39; triggers a downward spiral in the relationship, disrupting the parent#39;s problem-solving ability and fueling emotional reactions, such as yelling.许多父母情绪失控是因为他们对孩子的错误或叛逆行为太较真。研究显示,他们会感觉自己受到攻击,或者认为孩子的行为让他们颜面尽失。《家庭心理学期刊》(Journal of Family Psychology)早些时候刊登的一项研究称,认为孩子的负面情绪出人意料、让人无所适从和令人沮丧的父母,往往会在孩子每次出现新的情绪爆发时产生更强烈的受威胁和挫败感。这种模式被称为“情绪崩溃”,会导致亲子关系陷入下行螺旋,扰乱父母解决问题的能力并催生吼叫等情绪反应。Teens whose parents use #39;harsh verbal discipline#39; such as shouting or insults are more likely to have behavior problems and depression symptoms, says a recent study of 976 middle-class adolescents and their parents, published online last September and led by Ming-Te Wang, an assistant professor of psychology and education at the University of Pittsburgh.近期一项对976名中产阶层青少年和他们父母的调查显示,被父母用喊叫或辱骂等方式进行“严厉语言管教”的青少年更容易有行为问题和抑郁症状。该调查去年9月份刊登在网上,由匹兹堡大学(University of Pittsburgh)心理学和教育学助理教授王明德(音)领导。Another study suggests yelling at children may have consequences that go beyond those of spanking. Eight-year-olds whose parents disciplined them by yelling have less satisfying relationships with romantic partners and spouses at age 23, according to a 15-year study led by Stephanie Parade, an assistant professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University. #39;Parents who yell may miss out on a chance to teach children to regulate their emotions,#39; she says.另一项研究暗示,对孩子吼叫带来的后果可能比打屁股更严重。布朗大学(Brown University) 精神病学和人类行为学助理教授斯蒂芬妮#12539;帕拉德(Stephanie Parade)领导的一项为期15年的研究显示,八岁时父母通过吼叫来管教的孩子到23岁时与恋爱伴侣和配偶之间的关系不太令人满意。她说:“大喊大叫的父母可能会错过教孩子如何管理情绪的机会。”Spanking also predicted less satisfying adult relationships, but the negative effects were offset when parents praised their children at other times. The negative effects of yelling weren#39;t erased by parental warmth, however. The negative problem-solving tactics that children learn when their parents yell may stick with them as adults, says the study, published in 2012 in Marriage amp; Family Review. Children also may expect others to treat them in a negative way, and unconsciously pick partners who fulfill that expectation.打屁股也与成年后伴侣关系不尽人意有关联,但父母在其他时候表扬孩子会消除打屁股带来的负面影响。然而,吼叫带来的负面影响不会因父母的关爱而消除。《婚姻和家庭》(Marriage amp; Family Review) 2012年刊登的这项研究称,孩子会在父母吼叫时学到负面的问题解决策略,成年后他们可能仍会坚持使用这些策略。这些孩子可能还会期望别人以负面方式对待他们,并且无意识地选择满足他们期望的伴侣。#39;Yelling is where 90% of us do the most damage,#39; says Julie Ann Barnhill, a speaker and author of #39;She#39;s Gonna Blow,#39; a book on parental anger that has sold 135,000 copies. Ms. Barnhill says she used to yell one to three times a week at her children when they were preschoolers. She got counseling, and learned to control her anger and discipline her kids in calmer, more positive ways, techniques she now teaches other parents in speeches and workshops.《她要发火了》(She#39;s Gonna Blow)一书作者、演说家朱莉#12539;安#12539;巴恩希尔(Julie Ann Barnhill)表示:“吼叫是90%的人犯的危害最大的错误。”《她要发火了》是一本有关父母愤怒情绪的书,销量高达135,000册。巴恩希尔说,孩子上学之前,她曾经一周对他们吼叫一到三次。后来她做了咨询,并学会控制自己的愤怒情绪,以更冷静、更积极的方式管教孩子。现在她通过演讲和工作室向其他父母教授这些技巧。Parents can learn to notice signs that a blowup is brewing and dial down their own tension. Warning signs can include: tightness in the throat or chest, shallow or rapid breathing, a clenching of the teeth or jaw, negative thoughts about oneself or feelings of being overwhelmed.父母可以学着去留意即将发火的信号并设法减轻自己的焦虑。预警信号包括:喉咙或胸口发紧,呼吸变得急促,咬紧牙关,对自己产生负面想法或感觉不堪重负。Deep breathing, envisioning a pleasant scene, counting to 10 or leaving the room can help. Ms. Barnhill advises practicing calming thoughts, such as #39;I#39;m having a miserable day, but getting angry will just make things worse.#39;深呼吸,想象愉快的场景,数到10或者离开房间都有所助益。巴恩希尔建议平复一下紊乱的思绪,比如对自己说:“我今天过得很悲催,但生气只能让情况更糟。”Build a margin of spare time into daily routines to allow time for minor mishaps, such as spilled milk or lost jackets, says Jill Savage, author of #39;No More Perfect Moms.#39; She adds, #39;If I have 20 minutes to clean up after dinner, I#39;m more likely to handle that spilled milk well.#39;《不再当完美妈妈》(No More Perfect Moms)一书作者吉尔#12539;萨维奇(Jill Savage)说,可在每日例行安排中留出一点富余时间处理小意外,比如孩子把牛奶弄 了或者上衣弄丢。她补充称:“如果饭后我有20分钟时间进行清理,我就更有可能把牛奶弄 的事处理好。”Learning to start sentences with #39;I#39; rather than #39;you#39; can help parents shift from an angry attack to a teaching moment, Ms. Faber says. #39;Say what you don#39;t like, then add what you would like or expect.#39;费伯说,学会将“我”而不是“你”作为句子的开头,能够帮助父母将怒气冲冲的攻击转变为对孩子的教育。她说:“说你不喜欢看到些什么,然后补充说你喜欢或者希望看到些什么。”Leigh Fransen felt like yelling when her daughters, 10-year-old Alona and 8-year-old Elisha, forgot to feed the family dog, Balto, on two evenings in the same week. #39;This is a really important responsibility, and they#39;re always asking me for more pets,#39; says Ms. Fransen, of Fort Mill, S.C. #39;I wanted to yell, #39;You#39;re not getting any dinner tonight, because you didn#39;t feed the dog, and you#39;re going to know how it feels#39;-which would lead to nothing but tears and misery, and probably to me backing down.#39;南卡罗来纳州米尔堡(Fort Mill)的利#12539;弗朗桑(Leigh Fransen)的女儿阿洛纳(Alona)和伊莱沙(Elisha)一个10岁,一个8岁。有一次,她俩一周有两个晚上忘记给家里的巴尔托(Balto)喂食,弗朗桑很想发脾气。弗朗桑说:“这是个非常重要的责任,她们总问我要更多的宠物。我想冲她们吼:‘你们没有喂,今天晚上不给你们吃饭了,这样你们才知道是什么感觉’──但这么做只会让她们掉眼泪,让她们感到痛苦,而我很可能会心软让步。”Instead, she started her response with #39;I,#39; saying, #39;I don#39;t like seeing the dog not fed. Look at him: He is miserable. I expect him to be fed before you eat your own dinner,#39; Ms. Fransen says. Alona and Elisha needed to be reminded of the deadline twice, but soon learned to remember on their own. Ms. Fransen praised them for taking responsibility and encouraged them to see that #39;Balto seems much happier now that he#39;s getting dinner on time.#39;于是她以“我”为开头来回应,她说:“我不喜欢看到没喂。看看他:他很可怜。我希望你们自己吃饭之前能把他喂饱。” 阿洛纳和伊莱沙后来还需要妈妈提醒两次才记得最后期限,但她们很快就能自己记得喂了。弗朗桑表扬她们能认真负责,并鼓励她们注意“巴尔托看起来开心多了,因为现在他能及时吃上饭了”。Many parents blow up because they have unrealistic expectations-such as assuming a two-year-old shouldn#39;t push parental limits, says Ms. Savage, chief executive of Hearts at Home, a Normal, Ill., nonprofit that runs conferences on parenting issues, including discipline. #39;We say to our children, #39;Act your age,#39; and in reality, they are,#39; she says. Not expecting children to be perfect, or nearly so, can calm parents#39; frustrations, Ms. Savage says. So can seeing a child#39;s failure as an opportunity for him to learn.Hearts at Home的首席执行长萨维奇说,许多父母发脾气是因为他们抱有不切实际的期望──比如认为两岁的孩子不应该违反父母的规定。她说:“我们对自己的孩子说:‘别像小孩那样。’但事实上他们就是小孩子。”萨维奇说,不要期望孩子十全十美或者接近完美,这样就能平复挫败感。所以我们可以把孩子的失败视为他学习的机会。Hearts at Home是伊利诺伊州诺默尔(Normal)一家就家庭教育问题(包括管教在内)组织会议的非营利组织。Parents can turn a meltdown into a teaching moment by involving kids in finding solutions, Ms. Faber says. She suggests waiting for a calm moment and stating the rule the child violated. Then give the child a choice about how to prevent the misbehavior from happening again. Inviting a child to suggest solutions teaches problem-solving skills.费伯说,父母可以和孩子一起寻找解决方案,把失败变为教育孩子的机会。她建议等到情绪平静的时候陈述孩子违反的规矩,然后让孩子去选择如何防止再次犯错。邀请孩子提出解决方案能够教会他们掌握解决问题的技能。Sara Weingot of Baltimore used the technique after her 6-year-old son misbehaved during an outing in her minivan, kicking and pushing two other kids#39; booster seats. She later told him she never wanted it to happen again, then listened sympathetically as he explained that he had been squeezed too tightly between two other kids#39; car seats.巴尔的(Baltimore)的萨拉#12539;魏因戈特(Sara Weingot)在她6岁的儿子犯错后就运用过这个技巧,当时她儿子在乘坐面包车出游时踢推其他两个孩子的儿童加高座椅。之后她对儿子说,她希望以后绝对不要再发生这种情况,然后她满怀同情地听儿子解释说他被其他两个孩子的汽车座椅挤得太紧。Ms. Weingot gave him a choice between staying home with a babysitter next time and finding another solution. He made a list from #39;get a better car#39; to taking turns with his siblings in more comfortable seats, an idea that worked, Ms. Weingot says.魏因戈特让他选择下次和保姆一起待在家里还是寻找另一种解决方案。魏因戈特说,他列出了一些方案,其中包括“买一辆更好的车”,还有和兄弟轮流坐更舒的座椅。后一种方案得到了采纳。Apologizing can help repair a relationship after an outburst, says Ms. Barnhill, the author. She took her daughter aside in her teens and apologized for an explosive incident a few years earlier. #39;I have this memory of being in your face and yelling at you. I am so sorry, sweet girl,#39; Ms. Barnhill says she told her.前文提到的作者巴恩希尔说,在发脾气之后道歉有助于修复亲子关系。巴恩希尔在女儿十几岁时曾把她拉到一边,为几年前一次发脾气而道歉。巴恩希尔说,当时她告诉女儿:“我记得自己对你发火,冲你大喊大叫。我很抱歉,亲爱的。”Her daughter Kristen Draughan, who is now 25, married and studying for a master#39;s degree in social work, says she doesn#39;t remember her mother yelling much when she was a child. But Ms. Draughan does recall that her mother#39;s remorse made her burst into tears. #39;It showed that she cared about my feelings,#39; she says.她女儿克丽丝藤#12539;德劳安(Kristen Draughan)现在25岁,已经结婚,在读社会工作专业硕士学位。她说她印象中小时候母亲不怎么冲她吼叫。但德劳安能够回想起她母亲的自责让她泪流满面。她说:“这说明她在乎我的感受。” /201402/276437

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