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2018年03月22日 22:01:10 | 作者:39在线 | 来源:新华社
栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。201604/431286To understand the true nature of the universe,there are a few ideas that pretty much everyone agrees on.为了理解宇宙的真正本质,绝大多数人都会同意这几个概念。Like theres an objective reality made of space and time.Or nothing can travel faster than light.And things that happened are caused by other things.But,we humans are free to choose what we do.These ideas make up our modern view of reality.But,theres a problem:they cant actually all be right at the same time.Whys that?比如空间和时间构成了客观现实。或者“任何物体都不能超过光速”,还有所发生的事情都是另一些事造成的。但是,我们人类都有自由选择权。这些概念构成了现代人对现实的观念。但有个问题,它们不能同时都是正确的。为什么?Well,in the quantum world,two particles like photons can be entangled,so that when you observe one,it affects the other,When this happens,we know that some sort of weird influence travels between the particles,almost instantaneously,faster than even the speed of light.在量子世界中,两个光子或者其他微粒纠缠在一起,因此观测任意一方都会影响另一方。当这发生时,我们知道有一种奇怪的影响,会在粒子间传递 传递几乎是即刻的。速度比光速还快。But according to Einsteins Theory of Special Relativity,Nothing can travel faster than light.So either relativity is wrong or somehow reality is bigger than just normal space and time.But in fact,either way stuff that travels faster than light is the major problem.Since space and time are woven together,sending an influence faster than light means you can send it back in time.And that means you can have all kinds of weird things.like effects happening before the things that cause them.但是根据爱因斯坦的狭义相对论,任何物体无法超过光速。那么要么相对论错了,要么现实并不仅仅是常说的空间和时间。而事实上 无论如何超过光速的物体才是主要问题。因为空间和时间交织在一起,将影响因素超光速传送意味着你能把送到时间之前,这就意味着你能让各种奇异事件发生,比如后果在原因之前发生。How does that work?Well,just like how quantum particles can sort of being two places at once,recent research says it maybe possible for them to be at two different times at once.This means that at the most basic level of the universe,cause and effect maybe meaningless,But it gets even worse.那么它是怎么做到的?正如量子微粒可以在同一时间出现在两个地方一样,近期的研究说明,他们也可能呈现在两个不同的时间内,这就意味着在宇宙的最基本层面上,因果关系也许毫无意义。更糟的还在后面。At its heart,quantum mechanics can never tell you exactly where particle will be,It only gives probabilities.And it is not like if we only have more information or better math,we can make a more precise prediction.The only way to know what a particle would do is for us to choose to measure it.在其核心内,量子力学永远不能告诉你微粒的精确位置,它只给出一些概率,这并不是说如果我们有更多的信息或者计算更精确,就能得到一个更精确的假设。我们发现粒子行为的唯一方法就是 去测量它.Until then,it actually really is fundamentally random.Unless we are actually choosing anything.If we get rid of the idea that we had a choice of when and how we measures the particle,then maybe it was somehow destined to be where and when we found it.That would mean the fundamental reality isnt random.But would also mean we have no free will.直到这时,本质上说它还是随机的,除非我们选择了一切,如果我们抛弃“自己可以选择何时通过什么方式测量微粒”这个观点,那么我们在某时某地找到它就是件命中注定的事了。这也就意味着现实的本质并非随机,但也意味着我们没有自由意志。We have to belive our choices are just illusions and consiousness are just the side effect of completely predictable chemical reactions going on in our brains.Or something like that.So if you like relativity,you cant have normal space and time.If you want cause and effect,you can have free will.我们得相信,我们所有的选择只是幻象,意识只是大脑中所发生的,完全可预知的化学反应的副产物,或者是类似的事情。如果你偏爱相对论 你就失去了常规的空间时间意识。如果你爱因果论,你就有自由意志。Our best theories about the way the universe works contradict each other.Does that mean science is wrong?Not really.Whats more likely is that our brains evolve to understand.space and time or cause and effect.because those things have mattered for our survival for most of our evolutionary history.对于宇宙的运转方式,我们最好的几个理论都是互相矛盾。这是否意味着科学不科学。不仅如此。更可能的原因是 我们的大脑在进化中理解,空间和时间 或者因果关系,是因为这些事在人类的进化史上关乎到我们的存亡.But while they maybe important to us humans.nothing says that space and time,or cause and effect have to be key features for the universe,That doesnt mean reality is actually controlled by.I dont know,invisible unicorns?但尽管它们对我们人类可能很重要,没有什么东西说明空间和时间或者因果关系,一定是宇宙的主要特征,这并不意味着宇宙实际上是被,额... 隐形独角兽控制的?Just that understanding the true nature of life,the universe and everything was never supposed to be easy.只是 理解事物的本质,比如生命 宇宙以及一切 从来都不是件简单的事。201501/353289TED会议上,Gary Wolf为一个引人入胜的新消遣做了个5分钟的介绍:使用移动设备和一直打开的小机械来追踪和分析你的身体,情绪,饮食,花销--差不多所有每日生活里你可以测量的东西,都可被细细地测量。201508/393278

The astronauts footprints stand preserved to this day.宇航员的足迹一直保存至今A testament to the beginning of what I think初步验了我所认为的could be the next chapter in the story of the cosmos.宇宙故事中的下一章:The sp of life to other part of the universe生命传播至宇宙其他地方As the universe gets older, we will have to get wiser.随着宇宙的成长,我们也要变得更加智慧I think we will have to go much further than the moon.我想我们应该探索比月球更远的地方At the very least to Mars.起码也应该探索火星The red planet is likely这一红色星球很可能to play an important part in our evolution.在我们的进化过程中扮演着重要角色and maybe even in the story of the cosmos.甚至在宇宙发展历程中也是Its the second and possibly the most important steppingstone它将是人类星际旅行的第二个on humanitys journey to the stars.很可能也是最重要的踏板Robot missions to Mars have revealed机器人的火星探测任务展示了a spectacularly beautiful yet dangerous and desolate place.一幅美丽而危险荒凉的壮观景象I imagine that being a human pioneer here would be an exciting business.我想,人类拓荒者抵达这里一定很令人兴奋For a start, its cold.首先,这里很寒冷Its 50 million miles further from the sun than the Earth到太阳的距离比地球远五千万英里and so it receives half as much warmth因此只接收到一半的热量and the temperatures fluctuate wildly.而且温度波动很大From 80 degrees to minus 200 in a matter of minutes.数分钟内从80度降到零下200度If the cold doesnt get you,如果寒冷的环境不能征你the low gravity will.那么低重力一定能办到Mars is just half the size of the Earth火星只有地球的一半大小and has just 38% of its gravity.而且重力只有地球的38%Overtime,explorerss bones would weaken久而久之,探索者的骨头将变脆 and their muscles would waste away.肌肉也将变得虚弱Spent long enough on Mars,在火星上呆久了and you could find yourself too weak to safely return to Earth.你会发现自己太过虚弱而无法安全回到地球The low gravity also means Mars struggles to hold on to an atmosphere.低重力同时意味着火星很难形成大气Here there is nothing more than a thin wisp of carbon dioxide这里除了稀薄的二氧化碳以外,什么也没有at just one-hundredth the pressure of our air.气压也只有我们气压的百分之一201510/404198

It turns out there is something in the food we eat原来在我们摄取的食物中有种成分that affects how much IGF-1 our bodies produce.会影响体内产生类胰岛素一号生长因子的数量That something is protein.这种成分就是蛋白质When we eat a lot of protein,如果我们摄取大量的蛋白质our cells get locked in go-go mode.我们的细胞就会一直处于加油模式So its basically like slamming your foot on the accelerator,就像我们踩了一脚油门- saying, ;Go! Go! Go!; Is that right? - Exactly.-大喊加油 加油 对吗 -对Its pushing the cell to burn fuel.就是不断促使细胞消耗能量In go-go mode,在加油模式里the body is more susceptible to some cancers and diabetes,人们更容易得癌症和糖尿病because your cells are growing too fast因为你的细胞生长太快for damage to be efficiently repaired.以致原有的损伤得不到有效的修复So its like driving your car all the time就像你一直开车and never taking it to the mechanic.却从来不把它拿去检修Right, so thats the key, basically, is to somehow find a way对 就是这样 要找到一个方法to switch your body from going, ;Broom, broom, broom,;把你的身体从加油模式into a sort of repair mode,切换到修复模式;Look after me, make my DNA better.;好好照顾我 修复好我的DNAExactly.没错So, how do you reduce your IGF-1?那怎样降低类胰岛素一号生长因子水平呢重点解释:1.turn out 结果是例句:The film turned out to be a great success.这部影片结果大获成功。2.a sort of 一种 ...例句:I had a sort of feeling he wouldnt come.我隐约觉得他不会来。3.susceptible to 对 ... 敏感的例句:The young pig is highly susceptible to chilling.小猪对寒冷是高度敏感的。 201510/403266

Apparently, world leaders like flipping through Instagram filters just like the rest of us.显然,世界领导人喜欢浏览Instagram,就像我们一样。A new study showed about 70 percent of governments around the globe have an Instagram account. Although many of those accounts arent very active.一项新的研究表明,全球百分之70的政府有Instagram帐户。虽然这些账户许多不是很活跃。Those accounts have drawn in 23 million followers and over 160 million likes, according to a February study.据二月的一项研究显示,这些账户已经吸引了2300万名粉丝,超过1亿6000万的喜欢。So whos topping the list for followers?那么谁的粉丝位列榜首呢?President Barack Obama has the most followers with more than 6 million. Russias Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev comes in with at least 2 million and then Indias PM Narendra Modi with 1.7 million.奥巴马总统拥有最多粉丝,达600多万。俄罗斯总理梅德韦杰夫至少有200万,然后印度总理莫迪有170万。As for most double taps and comments, Obama comes in first again, followed by Modi.对于最多双击和,奥巴马再次位列第一,其次是莫迪。Who shares the most? The country is small, but the Information Department of the government of Brunei still posts at least four images daily.谁分享最多?文莱虽小,但其政府信息部门仍每天至少发布四张图片。译文属。201602/426961

So now is a good time to be alive, I think.我认为,现在是个适合生存的好阶段We may only be an advanced breed of monkey我们或许不过是这颗小小行星上living on a small planet,较为高等的猿类but we are able to contemplate the universe as a whole但能够对宇宙整体的思索 which makes us very special.让我们变得与众不同My goal has always been simple.我的目标总是很简单To work out how the universe works and how it exists at all.探索宇宙如何运行,以及它究竟是如何产生的Luckily there are clues everywhere幸运的是,指向的线索众多and the most important one is right above our heads.其中最重要的一个线索就我们的头顶上方Examine any patch of the night sky.仔细观察每一片夜空Even one as small as the head of a pin and this is what you will find.即便是看似针尖大小,你也会有所收获A tiny part of the vast web of galaxies.这只是星系巨网中的一小部分Its less than a millionth of what we can see of the cosmos from our little planet.还不到能从地球上看到的宇宙的百万分之一But even this tiny sample is enough to find a clue,即便如此微小的样本也足以找出一条线索the key to the past, the present, and perhaps the future too.一个了解过去,现在,甚至是未来的关键The clue is that seen from earth,即从地球望向太空all these distant galaxies are slightly red in color.所有遥远的星系都微泛红光They appear almost as if它们的样子与我们透过玫瑰色镜片we were looking through rose-tinted glasses.看物体时非常相似Its this very redness that reveals就是这样的红色向我们揭示了how the universe was born.宇宙是如何诞生的And to show you why,为究其原理I need a straight road and a noisy car.我需要笔直的公路和噪音很大的汽车Listen to the sound as it passes by.请听汽车经过时的声音As the car approaches, the pitch of its engine rises.随着汽车的接近,引擎音调升高As it goes away, the pitch of its engine falls.随着汽车的离开,引擎音调则降低This phenomenon is called a Doppler Shift.这种现象叫做多普勒频移And the exact same thing happens with light.这也同样适用于光If our eyes were most sensitive to color如果肉眼对颜色非常敏感we could see that the car人们便可以看到is actually very slightly blue as it approaches,汽车接近时,实际呈微蓝色and very slightly red as it goes away.而离开时,则呈微红色The same rules apply in space.太空中的一切也同样遵循此规则All distant galaxies are slightly red in color所有遥远的星系,看上去都是红色的So by the exact same piece of basic physics根据这一基本物理规则they must all be moving away too.它们肯定也都在渐行渐远In fact, the whole universe is expanding事实上,整个宇宙都在膨胀in all directions, getting bigger and bigger向着四面八方,越来越大like a balloon inflating.就像一个充气气球201508/393701

Coal is this magical stuff.煤是种神奇的东西It just looks like a black hunk greasy dirt,它看起来就像一块漆黑油腻的污泥but theres so much energy embedded in it但其内所蕴含的能量非比寻常that its really as precious as a jewel.它真的和珠宝一样珍贵Now, life accelerates.现在 生活节奏加快Coal turns to steam And opens the age of mass transportation.煤变成了蒸汽 开启了公共交通运输时代的大门Steam changed everything.蒸汽改变了一切Before, we had our own muscles,we had animals muscles, we had fire,之前 我们凭自己的血肉之躯 借动物之力 用火的威力now we have this incredible compressive force of steam.现在我们有了蒸汽产生的这种不可思议的压力Steam drives the railroad.蒸汽推动了铁路的发展Mankind conquers time and space.人类战胜了时间和空间And the railroad drives One of the greatest engineering challenges We have ever faced.而铁路又带动了我们从未遇到过的一个最伟大的 工程方面的挑战之一1852, West Virginia.Mankind pushes through mountains.1852年 在西佛吉尼亚州 人类凿山而过A railroad linking Baltimore to the midwest,Across 380 miles of mountainous terrain.一条连接巴尔的和中西部地区的铁路 跨越了380英里的山岭地区America transformed.美国改变了201604/436009

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